Sunday, June 26, 2011

Scala 14 (651-700)

<== Go back to Scala 13 (601-650)

651. Amoris umbra invidia.

This expresses the idea of jealousy is an even more sinister way: it is love's shadow. You can see this illustrated in one of Vaenius's Amorum Emblemata.

652. Virtutis comes invidia.

Just as good fortune comes with envy, so does personal excellence: if you have the power of virtue, you will be envied for it.

653. Virtus vincit invidiam.

This is the Clibborn family motto.

654. Numquam virtutem deserit invidia.

[desero: leave, quit, forsake, desert] This expresses the opposite idea of the previous saying: excellence can never rid itself of envy!

655. Invidia gloriae comes.

[gloria: glory, renown] As with fortuna and virtus, so gloria is also subject to envy. This is why the Roman emperors had to have the good luck sign of the "fascinus" on their chariot as part of their glorious triumph. You can read more about the fascinus and the evil eye in this Wikipedia article.

656. Post gloriam invidia sequitur.

This takes the idea of invidia as the associate of gloria and restates it with the verb sequitur: After glory follows envy.

657. Gloriae et virtutis invidia est comes.

This saying is a variation on the previous, featuring both gloria and virtus as things that are envied.

658. Gloria virtutis umbra.

The words are from one of the letters of Seneca, 9.79: Gloria umbra virtutis est: etiam invitam comitabitur.

659. Gloria cuique sua.

This is one of the many "cuique suus" category of sayings, of which you have seen several examples already: Suus cuique mos, Sua cuique hora, etc.

660. Ardua ad gloriam via.

As often, the verb has been omitted in the Latin: Ardua (est) ad gloria via.

661. Fugit gloria sequentem et sequitur fugientem.

This proverb uses a very elegant parallelism to express this paradoxical situation: fugit-sequitur and sequentem-fugientem.

662. Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam

This Latin phrase is often abbreviated: A.M.D.G. This is also the motto of the Jesuit order; for more information, see this Wikipedia article.

663. Ubi pericula, ibi gloria.

[periculum: danger, peril] This is another one of those ubi...ib... proverbs, of which you have seen several examples already: Ubi concordia, ibi victoria; Ubi spes, ibi pax, etc.

664. Numquam periculum sine periculo vincitur.

You can find a discussion of this saying in Albertano's Liber Consolationis et Consilii, 42.

665. In periculo non est dormiendum.

Note the use of the impersonal gerundive to express the idea of a necessity: Non est dormiendum, "Don't go to sleep!"

666. Periculum in mora.

[mora: delay, pause] As often, the verb has been omitted in the Latin: (Est) periculum in mora, "There is danger in delay."

667. Plus in mora periculi.

Here you see the same idea expressed comparatively: There is more danger in delay (than there is in acting promptly). The word "plus" takes what is called a partitive genitive in Latin: more (of) danger.

668. Fugit hora sine mora.

Notice the nice word play: hora-mora.

669. Habet deus suas horas et moras.

This proverb also plays on the nice rhyme of "hora" and "mora."

670. Verus amor odit moras.

[odi: hate] There is a nice paradox here with the ideas of love and hate combined in a single saying.

671. Quem amabit qui ipse semet oderit?

This intricate statement can be found in Eramsus's Moriae Encomium (In Praise of Folly). If you want to translate it into English, it's better to take the relative clause first: The man who hates himself - whom will he love?

672. Veritas odit moras.

This is a sentiment expressed in Seneca's Oedipus.

673. Amici mores noveris, non oderis.

This is a piece of advice from Publilius Syrus. Note how the subjunctive here conveys the sense of a command: You should know your friend's habits, but not hate them.

674. Omnis qui male agit, odit lucem.

This can be literally true (as thieves in the night) or metaphorically, when wrongdoers hate the light of truth that would reveal their wrong-doing.

675. Odit victoria somnos.

[somnus: sleep] Remember also the previous proverb about what victory loves, which is just the opposite of sleep: Amat victoria curam.

676. Somnus est frater mortis.

[frater: brother] You can also find this idea expressed as follow: Somnus est imago mortis, "Sleep is the image of death."

677. Frater est amicus quem nobis dedit Natura.

You can also find this saying with the words: Frater est amicus quem donat natura.

678. Omnes vos fratres estis.

These words can be found in the Gospel of Matthew, 23.

679. Quis amicior quam frater fratri?

Although amicus is more often used substantively, as a noun ("friend"), it really is an adjective ("friendly"). So, as an adjective, it has a comparative form: amicior, "more friendly."

680. Fratrum concordia rara.

[rarus: rare, uncommon] As you can see, this proverb and the previous proverb disagree. The idea of fraternal discord can be found in the Bible's tale of the first brothers on earth, Cain and Abel.

681. Omne rarum carum.

This is a good reminder that the neuter singular ending for omnis is -e: Omne rarum (every uncommon thing) carum (is costly). Of course, English cannot capture the nice rhyme of rarum-carum.

682. Rarum, carum.

This is an even more succinct version of the previous proverb.

683. Quae rara, cara.

This takes the same idea and puts it into the plural. Note the missing antecedent of the relative pronoun: (Haec), quae rara, cara.

684. Quae rarissima, carissima.

This expresses the same idea in the superlative, which can be rendered in English with a superlative ("the most uncommon things") or simply with a strong affirmation: "things which are extremely uncommon," "very uncommon," etc.

685. Quae optima sunt, rara sunt.

This takes a different approach, bringing in a new idea of value: Those things which are best are uncommon. Of course, you do not have to use the superlative in English: Those things were are extremely good are uncommon. {Latin uses the superlative independently much more than English does.)

686. Optima quaeque rarissima sunt.

Notice here the adjective quisque, here in the neuter plural: quaeque. This can be rendered in various ways in English: all things, anything, whatever things, etc.

687. Amicus res rara.

As the philosopher Seneca observes: Amicus res rara, quae non alibi magis deest, quam ubi creditur abundare, "A friend is a rare thing which is never more lacking than when you think you have many of them."

688. Amicus certus, rara avis.

[avis: bird; dim. avicula] See Juvenal's Sixth Satire for more about the proverbial "rare bird" and the paradoxical "black swan."

689. Amicus verus, rara avis.

Compare the previous proverb; this time the elusive friend is the one who is verus.

690. Qualis avis, talis cantus.

[cantus: song] This is another one of those qualis...talis type of proverbs which you saw earlier: Qualis rex, talis grex;Qualis mater, talis et filia, etc.

691. E cantu avem.

Note the accusative form here, avem. That lets you know that a verb is implied, which you have to supply in English: "From its song (we know) the bird," "(we recognize) the bird," etc.

692. E cantu cognoscitur avis.

[cognosco: recognize, become aware, learn] This is a variation on the preceding proverb, with the verb supplied.

693. Alta a longe cognoscuntur.

Note that the plural verb, cognoscuntur, lets you know that alta needs to be neuter plural: tall things, lofty things. Note the adverb longe being used as the complement of the preposition a, "from afar."

694. Occasionem cognosce.

This is the motto of the Lowell family.

695. Tempore felici non cognoscuntur amici.

Note the use of the ablative here to express time: tempore felici. For when friends really can be recognized, see the earlier proverb: Tempore in adverso veri noscuntur amici.

696. Ex auribus cognoscitur asinus.

[auris: ear; diminutive: auricula] The donkey has distinctively long ears and in many versions of the Aesop's fable about the donkey in the lion-skin, the donkey's true identity is revealed by his ears sticking out from the under his disguise.

697. Ex auricula asinum.

This is an abbreviated version of the preceding proverb; note the accusative donkey, asinum, which lets us know that a verb is implied. The diminutive form, auricula, is ironic - the donkey's ears are anything but diminutive!

698. Auriculas asini quis non habet?

This phrase was coined by the philosopher Cornutus, and it alludes to the famous story of King Midas and his donkey ears.

699. Oculos habentes non videtis et aures habentes non auditis.

The words are from the Gospel of Mark, 8.

700. Auribus lupum teneo.

[lupus: wolf] This is a proverbially dangerous thing to do, of course, since it is dangerous both to hold on to the wolf and also dangerous to let go! This happens to be one of the adages cited by the Roman scholar Varro.

Scala 15 (701-750)

No comments: