Saturday, July 23, 2011

Scala 51 (2501-2550)

<== Go back to Scala 50 (2451-2500)

(click image for a larger view)

2501. Equo donato noli respicere in os.

[respicio: look back at, consider, respect] Compare the English saying, "Don't look a gift horse in the mouth." Notice that Latin often uses the dative with body parts, where in English we would use a possessive expression: equo donato in os, "into the mouth of the given horse."

2502. Nulli ad aliena respicienti sua placent.

Note that the main verb and its subject, sua placent, takes a dative complement: nulli ad aliena respicienti. In English, that dative would be the subject of the sentence: "No one who gazes at other people's stuff likes his own stuff."

2503. Adhuc aliquis deus respicit nos.

When the god gazes upon you, showing you "respect" as it were, it is a sign of favor. For example, "Fortuna Respiciens" was a favorable representation of the goddess Fortuna, who was notoriously fickle in her favors.

2504. In omnibus rebus, respice finem.

You can also find the saying in this shortened form: Respice finem.

2505. Respice futurum.

This is a motto of the Reece family. I suspect it might have been chosen for the nice verbal echo between "respice" and "Reece" (very often, English families chose Latin mottoes that punned in some way with their name).

2506. Respice post te.

The words were supposedly part of the Roman imperial triumph, when a slave would whisper to the conquering general: "Respice post te! Hominem te memento!" You can read Tertullian's account in his Apologeticum.

2507. Respicio sine luctu.

[luctus: grief, sorrow] This is the Dendy family motto.

2508. Eveniunt homini post luctus gaudia saepe.

The line is a dactylic hexameter.

2509. Post gaudia luctus.

This expresses the same idea as the previous saying much more succinctly.

2510. Dies levat luctum.

[levo: lift up, lighten, lessen] Compare the saying you saw earlier: Tempus dolorem lenit.

2511. Ne differas de die in diem.

[differo: put off, delay, differ, spread] The words are from the Biblical book of Sirach, 5.

2512. Propera, nec venturas differ in horas.

Notice how the prepositional phrase, venturas in horas, is double wrapped: the noun phrase venturas horas is wrapped around the preposition, while the prepositional phrase is wrapped around the imperative: differ. Very nice!

2513. Inter dictum et factum multum differt.

This is one of many proverbs which point to the difference between speaking and doing. Compare the sayings you saw earlier: "Facta plus valent quam dicta" and "Dicere et facere non semper eiusdem."

2514. Spes quae differtur affligit animam.

[affligo: break, crush, ruin, weaken] The words are from the Biblical book of Proverbs, 13. Compare also the famous poem by Langston Hughes, A Dream Deferred.

2515. Iuvare amicos rebus afflictis decet.

The impersonal verb decet takes an infinitive complement, as you can see here: iuvare amicos.

2516. Spes servat afflictos.

This is one of the sayings collected by Erasmus in his Adages, 4.4.63.

2517. Spe labor levis.

[levis-light: light, slight, gentle; adv. leviter] The verb is implied but not stated: With hope, the work (becomes) light.

2518. Levius fit patientia.

Note that patientia is in the ablative (compare spe in the previous saying); the subject is unspecified. The words are from Horace, Ode 1.24: Durum, sed levius fit patientia quicquid corrigere est nefas (the poem is a consolation on the subject of death and loss).

2519. Hoc portat leviter, quod portat quisque libenter.

This saying is famously included by Rabelais in his Gargantua and Pantagruel, 3.

2520. Cui deus auxilio est, huic onus omne leve est.

Note the predicate use of auxilio: deus auxilio est. In English, you might say "god is a helper" or "god is helpful."

2521. Iugum meum suave est, et onus meum leve.

The words are from the Gospel of Matthew, 11.

2522. Peccavimus omnes, alii gravia, alii leviora.

This is another one of those "aliud...aliud" sayings, which can be rendered in English as "some... others..."

2523. Qui leviter credit, deceptus saepe redit.

The rhyme, credit-redit, reveals the medieval provenance of this saying.

2524. Quod praeteriit, levius est.

As often, the antecedent of the relative pronoun is omitted: (Hoc), quod praeteriit, levius est.

2525. Sit tibi terra levis.

This is a phrase you could find carved on Roman gravemarkers, often abbreviated S.T.T.L.

2526. Fortuna levis est dea.

[dea: goddess] Note how the predicate noun phrase, levis dea, wraps around the verb.

2527. Spes ultima dea.

The idea is that all the other gods may abandon you, but Spes will still be there, the last to leave.

2528. Morborum medicus omnium mors ultimus.

[morbus: disease, sickness] Notice the interweaving the noun phrases "morborum omnium" (wrapped around medicus) and "ultimus medicus," the predicate, wrapped around the subject: mors. You can also find the saying in this form: Ultimus morborum medicus mors.

2529. Plus a medico quam a morbo periculi.

Compare the English word "iatrogenic," referring to illnesses caused by the physician's medical intervention.

2530. Morbum suum nosse est pars prima salutis.

The infinitive phrase, "morbum suum nosse," is functioning as a noun here, serving as the subject of the sentence.

2531. Nimia gula morborum mater.

Since gula is a feminine noun, this means it can be the mother, mater, of things - in this case, the mother of illnesses.

2532. Senectus ipsa morbus est.

[senectus-noun: old age] Note that as a feminine form, ipsa must go with the noun senectus, a third-declension feminine noun: senectus ipsa, old age itself.

2533. Longa senectus plena malis.

The words are adapted from Juvenal: Sed quam continuis et quantis longa senectus / plena malis!

2534. Grave senectus est hominibus pondus.

Notice how the predicate phrase, grave pondus, wraps around the entire sentence.

2535. Senectus vitae hiems.

It is important here to find the correct break between subject, senectus, and predicate, vitae hiems.

2536. Morte magis metuenda senectus.

[metuo: fear, be afraid] Note the use of the gerundive to express the idea of necessity, agreeing in gender and number with the subject of the sentence: senectus.

2537. Summum nec metuas diem, nec optes.

Notice how the object phrase, summum diem (the highest, or last, day of life) wraps around the verb.

2538. Rebus tranquillis, metuas adversa sub illis.

The subjunctive, metuas, is used here to express the idea of a command: you should fear, you must fear. The rhyme, tranquillis-illis, reveals the medieval provenance of this saying.

2539. Nec cupio, nec metuo.

You can also find this saying in second person: Nec cupias, nec metuas.

2540. Qui cupit aut metuit, servus est.

The phrase "qui cupit aut metuit" comes from Horace, but this adaptation of the words to metaphorical slavery is a medieval invention.

2541. Malo me diligi quam metui.

Notice that malo here introduces an accusative+infinitive construction: Malo me diligi, I prefer that I be loved = I prefer to be loved.

2542. Potius amari, quam metui.

Compare the previous saying, where the comparison was between the passive infinitives diligi and metui, while here the pair is amari and metui.

2543. Oderint, dum metuant.

These words of the ancient poet Accius were famously invoked by the emperor Caligula. Note the use of the perfect subjunctive, oderint; the verb odi has only perfect forms.

2544. Quis eum diligat quem metuat?

Note the subjunctive, diligat, which gives the question a hypothetical quality: who would be able to love...?

2545. Fortuna fortes metuit, ignavos premit.

Note the parallel structure: fortes/ignavos, metuit/premit.

2546. Expertus metuit.

The words are from Horace's Epistles, 1: Dulcia inexpertis cultura potentis amici / expertus metuit.

2547. Magistrum metue.

This is one of the monostichs attributed to the so-called Cato.

2548. Si nihil velis timere, metuas omnia.

This is one of the sayings recorded by Publilius Syrus.

2549. Metuendum est semper, esse cum tutus velis.

The idea is that metuendum est semper tibi, "you must always be afraid."

2550. Semper metuendom, sapiens evitat malum.

[evito: avoid, keep away from] Note the use of the gerund in the ablative: semper metuendo, "by being always afraid."

Scala 52 (2551-2600)

No comments: