Thursday, August 04, 2011

Scala 57 (2801-2850)

<== Go back to Scala 56 (2751-2800)

(click image for a larger view)

2801. Pastor bonus animam suam dat pro ovibus.

The words are from the Gospel of John, 10.

2802. Pastorem pascere oportet oves.

[pasco: feed, graze, feed on] The impersonal verb oportet takes an accusative complement, pastorem, and an infinitive, pascere (which in turn takes an object of its own: oves).

2803. Pastores pascunt semetipsos.

The point of this proverb is that instead of feeding themselves, the shepherds are supposed to feed their sheep: Pastorem pascere oportet oves.

2804. Pascis canes qui te lanient, catulosque luporum.

[lanio: tear, mangle, butcher] Note the future tense: lanient. What you are doing now (pascis canes catulosque luporum) will result in future disaster (te lanient). Consider, for example, the fable of the shepherd and the wolf cub.

2805. Nolite dare sanctum canibus.

[sanctus: holy, sacred, saintly, saint] The words are from the Gospel of Matthew, 7.

2806. Pax Tibi Cum Sanctis

This Latin phrase is abbreviated in catacomb inscriptions: P.T.C.S. Compare the more familiar phrase, R.I.P., "Requiescat In Pace."

2807. Sanctorum vitas legere et non vivere frusta est.

Here is a fuller form of the saying, from an epigram by John Owen, 3.80: Sanctorum vitas legere et non vivere frusta est; / sanctorum vitas degite, non legite.

2808. Si sanctos sequeris, sanctus sic efficieris.

Si sanctos sequeris, sanctus sic efficieris: / sed perverteris, si perversos comiteris.

2809. Cum sancto sanctus eris, cum perverso perverteris.

[perverto: destroy, ruin, corrupt] Note the future tenses: eris and pervertēris.

2810. Tu perverteris, si perversis socieris.

[socio: ally, unite, join] Note the future tense indicative passive form: pervertēris. Meanwhile the form sociēris is present subjunctive passive. So, you have a typical mixed conditional statement: if (something in the subjunctive), then (something in the future).

2811. Omnis homo simili sui sociabitur.

In the previous proverb you saw a passive present subjunctive form (sociēris), while in this proverb you have an example of a passive future indicative: sociabitur.

2812. Pauperior caveat sese sociare potenti.

Note the subjunctive, caveat: let the man who is very poor beware. Note also how the comparative, pauperior, can be used to express the notion of "very poor, quite poor," in the absence of an actual comparison.

2813. Curis iactatur, si quis Veneri sociatur.

[iacto: toss, throw out, boast] Note that quis here has the force of aliquis, as you would expect after the word "si" (as well as after "nisi," "num," and "ne").

2814. Verbis non iacta te, sed facias bona facta.

Note that the subjunctive here, facias, has the force of a command: facias bona facta, "you should do good deeds."

2815. Magna ne iactes, sed praestes.

As in the previous saying, the subjunctive praestes here has the force of a command: (magna) praestes, "you should perform great deeds."

2816. Minima possunt, qui plurima iactant.

Note the nice paradoxical parallel: minima/plurima and possunt/iactant.

2817. Minimum eripit Fortuna, cui minimum dedit.

[eripio: take away, snatch, rescue] This is one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus. Note that minimum is being used here as an adverb, "as little as possible" or "least." As often, the antecedent of the relative pronoun is not expressed: Minimum eripit Fortuna (ei), "Fortune takes least away from the man," cui minimum dedit, "to whom she has given least."

2818. Quod non dedit Fortuna, non eripit.

This expresses the same idea in somewhat different terms; again, the antecedent of the relative pronoun is not expressed: (Hoc), quod non dedit Fortuna, non eripit.

2819. Nihil eripit Fortuna, nisi quod et dedit.

This is a more elaborate version of the previous saying: Nihil eripit Fortuna, "Fortune can take away nothing, " nisi quod et dedit, "except that which she likewise gave" (the word et is being used adverbially there).

2820. Veras divitias eripit nemo.

This expresses the same, but without including the goddess Fortuna, she who bestows riches - but not true riches!

2821. Lupo agnum eripere postulant.

The words are from Plautus's Poenulus.

2822. Eripere telum, non dare, irato decet.

[telum: dart, spear, javelin, weapon] The impersonal verb decet takes infinitive complements: eripere and dare. Both of those infinitives have telum as their accusative object, and they also both take a dative complement: eripere irato (to take away from an angry man), dare irato (to give to an angry man).

2823. Telum ira facit.

The words are from Vergil's Aeneid, 7.

2824. Necessitati quodlibet telum utile est.

This is another one of the sayings attributed to Publilius Syrus.

2825. Tela praevisa minus feriunt.

You can also see this saying with iacula, darts, instead of tela: Iacula praevisa minus feriunt.

2826. Acutiora sunt auri tela quam ferri.

[acutus: sharp, pointed] Note the implied parallelism: Acutiora sunt auri tela quam ferri (tela).

2827. Alterius vitium acute cernis, et tua non vides.

The words are inspired by a fragment of Greek comedy cited by Plutarch in his treatise On Curiosity, 1. In Plutarch's Greek, the gaze belongs to someone especially sinister, someone with the evil eye: βασκανώτατος.

2828. Fames est gladius acutissimus.

This is one of the sayings collected by Bebel in his Proverbia Germanica.

2829. Frigus et fames durissimi hostes.

[frigus: cold, cold weather] I'm not sure what we could use in English to get the alliteration of frigus and fames.

2830. Hostis numquam contemnendus.

[contemno: disregard, scorn, hold in contempt] The gerundive is being used to express the idea of necessity or a command; the masculine singular form agrees with the subject, hostis: "An enemy should never be disregarded" = "You should never disregard an enemy."

2831. Maiori cede, sed non contemne minorem!

This saying takes the traditional idea of giving way to someone who is greater, while also reminding you not to make a mistake in dealing with someone who is your inferior. As often, the proverb is defining a middle way between two types of error.

2832. Citius venit periculum cum contemnitur.

This is another one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus.

2833. Mortem ubi contemnas, omnes viceris metus.

This too comes from Publilius Syrus.

2834. Contemni gravius sapienti est quam percuti.

The infinitives, contemni and percuti, are being used as nouns here in a comparative expression.

2835. Nemo ab alio contemnitur, nisi a se ante contemptus.

The words are from Seneca's treatise, De Consolatione.

2836. Contemnuntur qui nec sibi nec alteri prosunt.

This is one of the sayings collected by Polydorus in his Adagia.

2837. Quod contemnitur saepe utilissimum est.

Note that as often the antecedent of the relative pronoun is not expressed: (Hoc), quod contemnitur, saepe utilissimum est.

2838. Contemne contemni.

Here the verb contemne (imperative) has taken an infinitive complement, contemni (passive infinitive).

2839. Vere philosophantes pecuniam contemnunt.

[philosophor: philosophize, practice philosophy] The words from the Digesta explain about those less virtuous philosophers, too: vere philosophantes pecuniam contemnunt, cuius retinendae cupidine fictam adseverationem detegunt.

2840. Minorem ne contempseris.

Note here how the perfect subjunctive can be used with ne to express a negative command.

2841. Magni fures minores morte damnant.

[damno: find guilty, condemn, doom] Note the nicely satirical parallel: Magni fures minores (fures) morte damnant.

2842. Magnum in pecunia praesidium.

[praesidium: protection, defense, guard] The saying is adapted from Cicero's speech In Verrem, 1.

2843. Amicitiae praesidium est firmissimum.

You can find this sentiment expressed in Cicero's treatise De Finibus, 1.

2844. Magnum est praesidium conscientia.

Note how the predicate noun phrase, "magnum praesidium," wraps elegantly around the verb.

2845. Magnum praesidium in periculis innocentia.

[innocentia: harmlessness, innocence] The words are from one of the Controversiae of Seneca the Elder.

2846. Innocentia ubique tuta.

You can see an emblem by Vaenius for this motto here: image.

2847. Innocentia eloquentia.

[eloquentia: eloquence] You can also find this idea expressed in the form of question-and-answer: Quid innocentia? Eloquentia.

2848. Multum eloquentiae, sapientiae parum.

Here is a similar take on the same idea: Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum.

2849. Eloquentia male sine moribus discitur.

The words are from one of the letters of Pliny the Younger, 3.3.

2850. Quanta est vis eloquentiae!

Just like quam, the word quantus can also be used as an exclamation, as here: quanta est vis, how great is the power! The punctuation lets you know that this is an exclamation, but the words could also be a question: Quanta est vis eloquentiae?

Scala 58 (2851-2900)

No comments: