Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Scala 48 (2351-2400)

<== Go back to Scala 47 (2301-2350)

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2351. Minori parce.

[minor-adj: lesser, smaller, inferior] Note that the verb parcere takes the dative: minori.

2352. Disce minori parcere, maiori cedere, ferre parem.

Note how all three infinitives - parcere, cedere, ferre - are complements to the main verb: disce.

2353. Ubi peccat aetas maior, male discit minor.

This is another one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus.

2354. Qui potest maius, potest et minus.

Note the adverbial use of "et" here, meaning something like "even" or "also." Note also that maius the neuter singular form of maior (plural: maiora), while minus is the neuter singular form of minor (plural: minora).

2355. Qui maiora cupit, saepe minora capit.

Note the elegant word play in the Latin: cupit-capit.

2356. Perdes maiora, minora nisi servaveris.

This is another one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus.

2357. Ubi maior est, minor cedat.

Note the subjunctive: cedat, let the lesser make way.

2358. Homo mundus minor.

The Greek equivalent of the Latin mundus minor is μικρὸς κόσμος, a "microcosm."

2359. Minor culpa, minor poena.

Compare the saying you saw earlier: Culpae poena par esto.

2360. E duobus malis, eligendum est minus.

[eligo: choose, select, elect] The gerundive is being used to express a sense of necessity or a command: eligendum est minus (malum), "choose the lesser (evil)!"

2361. E malis, minimum eligendum.

This expresses the same idea with a superlative: minimum eligendum, "choose the least" of the evils.

2362. Elige ex malis minima.

You can also find the idea expressed with the gerundive: Minima de malis eligenda.

2363. Ex malis eligere minima oportet.

The verb oportet is another impersonal way to express a command: eligere oportet, "you should choose," "one should choose," "it is appropriate to choose," etc.

2364. Elige viam optimam.

As in English, the word "via" can be both a literal path, and also a metaphorical "way" of doing something.

2365. Mediam viam elige.

Compare the sayings you saw earlier: "Locus medius tutus est" and "Medio tutissimus ibis."

2366. Elige quem diligas!

Note the subjunctive, diligas, and how it creates a hypothetical situation: the person whom you might love or whom you would love IF you chose to do so. Note also the nice echo: elige-diligas.

2367. Doctrinam magis quam aurum eligite.

[doctrina: education, learning, instruction] The words are from the Biblical book of Proverbs, 8.

2368. Doctrina est fructus dulcis radicis amarae.

Note the nice paradoxical parallel: fructus/radicis and dulcis/amarae.

2369. Doctrina multo praestat auro.

Note that multo does not agree here with auro; instead, it is expressing the degree of the comparison - Learning is more valuable by far than gold.

2370. Virtutem doctrina parit.

The words are adapted from Horace, Epistulae, 1.

2371. Doctrina sua noscitur vir.

This saying is included by Polydorus in his Adagia, B317. Note that since vir must be the subject of the sentence, this lets you know that doctrina sua must be an ablative phrase: by means of learning, through learning, etc.

2372. Qualis vir, talis oratio.

[oratio: speech, style of speaking, eloquence] Compare the qualis...talis sayings you have seen before, such as "Qualis pater, talis filius."

2373. Qualis avis, talis cantus; qualis vir, talis oratio.

This expands on the previous saying with a delightful animal parallel!

2374. Talis hominum oratio, qualis vita.

This expresses the same idea as "Qualis vir, talis oratio," but now with the parallel between oratio and vita.

2375. Oratio vultus animi est.

Note that oratio is the subject, while the noun phrase "vultus animi" provides the predicate - you cannot see this face, but you can hear it!

2376. Oratio imago animi.

This expresses the same idea as the previous saying, but this time with the metaphor of "imago" rather than "vultus."

2377. Oratio mores animi sequitur.

Although sequitur has a passive form, it is a deponent verb which can take a direct object as here: mores sequitur.

2378. Oratio cibus est animi.

In this saying, oratio has the specific sense of "prayer," rather than "speech" in general.

2379. Habet suum venenum blanda oratio.

[blandus: flattering, charming, smooth] This is another one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus.

2380. Blandi post nubila soles.

[nubilus: cloudy; nubilum: cloudy weather, cloudy sky] This is one of many sayings in which the changing weather offers a metaphorical image for the vicissitudes of human life.

2381. Post nubila, sol.

This is an even more compact expression of the metaphor in the previous saying.

2382. Post nubila, solem spero.

Note the elegant alliteration: solem spero.

2383. De animo nubila pelle tuo.

This is one of the sayings found in the fragments of Petronius.

2384. Post nubila, lux.

Another variation on the same idea, this time with lux in place of sol.

2385. Post nubila, clarior.

[clarus: clear, bright, illustrious] You can see a nice emblem with this motto here: image.

2386. Clariora sequor.

This is a motto of the Buchanan family.

2387. Melius est clarum fieri quam nasci.

Note that clarum works with both infinitives: Melius est clarum fieri quam (clarum) nasci.

2388. Lumina inter umbras clariora sunt.

There is a discussion of this idea in Quintilian, 2.

2389. Nil clarius astris.

[astrum: star] This is a motto of the Baillie family.

2390. Astra regunt homines sed regit astra Deus.

Note the elegant parallel astra-Deus and homines-astra, with a chiastic inversion that has astra the subject of regunt and then the object of regit. Lovely! Even Sir Walter Scott was fond of this one, and inserted it into the words of the astrologer in Kenilworth.

2391. Feret ad astra virtus.

Note the future tense: feret.

2392. Ad astra!

For the many uses of "ad astra," see this Wikipedia page.

2393. Per ardua ad astra!

This is the motto of the Royal Air Force.

2394. Astra castra, Numen lumen.

[castra: camp, military camp] This rhyming motto is used by the Knights of the Maccabees, among others.

2395. Per aspera ad astra!

[asper: rough, hard, rugged] For the many uses of this popular motto, see the Wikipedia page.

2396. Melior post aspera fata resurgo.

[resurgo: rise up again, be restored, revive] You can see this motto on a medallion struck in honor of Hugo Grotius here: image.

2397. Resurgam.

This motto also served as the name for two 19th-century submarines; learn more at Wikipedia.

2398. Percussus, resurgo.

[percutio: beat, strike, hit] This is a motto of the Jordan family.

2399. Qui gladio percutit, gladio morietur.

Note the future tense: morietur.

2400. Percutitur catulus, ut leo timeat.

[catulus: cub, pup] You can also find this saying with canis instead of catulus, e.g. Percutitur saepe canis, ut timeat leo fortis.

Scala 49 (2401-2450)

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