Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Scala 49 (2401-2450)

<== Go back to Scala 48 (2351-2400)

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2401. Percutitur catulus, ut sapiat leo.

This is a variation on the previous saying, now with "sapiat" instead of "timeat."

2402. Leonis catulum ne alas.

[alo: feed, nourish, support, raise] This is one of the sayings collected by Erasmus in his Adagia, 2.3.77.

2403. Leonis catulus in urbe non est alendus.

The gerundive here, alendus, expresses a necessity, something like a command: leonis catulus non est alendus, "don't rear a lion cub!"

2404. Odium non alendum.

As in the previous saying, the gerundive here is being used to express a command: Don't nourish hatred!

2405. Bellum se ipsum alet.

Note the future tense: alet. For more about this military strategy, see the Wikipedia article.

2406. Non alens te, alis canes!

Note that the participial phrase, non alens te, agrees with the subject of the main verb: (Tu), non alens te, alis canes!

2407. Te ipsum non alens, canes vis alere.

This expresses the same idea as in the previous saying and, once again, the participial phrase (te ipsum non alens) agrees with the subject of the main verb (vis). Here is the same notion in the third person: Se ipsum non alens, canes alit!

2408. Una domus non alit duos canes.

This is one of the sayings collected by Erasmus in his Adagia, 2.2.24.

2409. Spes alit et fallit.

Notice the nice play on words: alit and fallit. I'm not sure how to capture that in English!

2410. Amantes spes alit.

Although amantes could be either nominative or accuasative, the singular verb lets you know that spes must be the subject, and amantes the object.

2411. Spem Fortuna alit.

This is a motto of the Kinnear family.

2412. Quaevis terra alit artem.

You can also find the same idea expressed this way: Quaevis terra alit artificem.

2413. Alitur vitium vivitque tegendo.

[tego: cover, cover up, hide] You can find these words in Vergil's Georgics, 3.

2414. Ira, quae tegitur, nocet.

The words are from Seneca's Medea.

2415. Intrat amicitiae nomine tectus amor.

[intro: enter, go into] Note that the ablative phrase, amicitiae nomine, goes with the passive participle: tectus, "hidden by the name of friendship."

2416. Omnia flumina intrant in mare.

[flumen: river, stream] The words are from the Biblical book of Ecclesiastes, 1: Omnia flumina intrant in mare, et mare non redundat.

2417. Flumine vicino, stultus sitit.

The ablative absolute, flumine vicino ("when a river is nearby"), explains just why the fool is a fool!

2418. Medio flumine quaeris aquam.

This is another proverb about foolishness - not being able to find the water in the middle of the river. Compare the English saying, "Can't see the forest for the trees."

2419. Nec pleno flumine cernit aquas.

This is a variation on the previous saying, now with "pleno flumine" (a river in full flood), as opposed to "medio flumine" (in the middle of the river).

2420. In magno magni capiuntur flumine pisces.

Note the elegant interlaced word order where the magno from one phrase (in magno flumine) is able to stand next to the magni from another phrase (magni pisces).

2421. In tali tales capiuntur flumine pisces.

This amplifies the idea of the previous saying: tales pisces would mean either big fish being caught in a big body of water (as in the previous saying), or it could mean little fish being caught in a little pond: in tali tales.

2422. In idem flumen bis non descendimus.

[descendo: go down, descend] This is a saying famously attributed to the philosopher Heraclitus; you can read more about him at Wikipedia.

2423. Sole orto, spes ; descendente, pax.

This is an inscription on a sundial, wishing you both hope and peace. Note that you have two different ablative expressions to tell you the time: sole orto, when the sun has risen, and (sole) descendente, when the sun is setting.

2424. Sol omnia aperit.

[aperio: open] Compare the sayings you saw earlier: "Sol oculus mundi" and "Esto sol testis."

2425. Peiora sunt tecta odia quam aperta.

Compare the saying you saw above about anger: Ira, quae tegitur, nocet.

2426. Claude os, aperi oculos.

[claudo: close, shut] Notice the nice sound play in the two parallel commands: os-oculos.

2427. Os qui non claudit, quod non vult, saepius audit.

Note the two different relative clauses, with different implied antecedents: (Is), qui os non claudit, saepius audit (hoc), quod non vult.

2428. Deo nihil clausum est.

As you can see, God plays the same role here as the all-seeing sun in the proverbs cited earlier, e.g. "Sol omnia aperit."

2429. Pauperis in causa non auris sit tibi clausa.

The rhyme, causa-clausa, reveals the medieval provenance of this saying. Notice also the way that Lati often uses a dative, as here, to express what we would consider possession in English: auris tibi, "your ear."

2430. Clausa auro patent.

[pateo: be open to, be accessible] Note the substantive use of the participle, clausa: closed (things), things that are closed. In other words, you can use gold (i.e. money) to open any door!

2431. Occulta veritas tempore patet.

[occultus: hidden, secret] Compare the saying you saw earlier: "Veritas temporis filia." Truth can be the daughter of time exactly because, over time (tempore), the truth emerges.

2432. Nihil diu occultum.

This expresses the same idea as the previous saying: nothing is long hidden because, in time, it is revealed.

2433. Nullum mendacium semper occultum.

This is yet another variation on the same idea but this time, instead of saying that the truth will emerge, the idea is that a lie cannot stay covered up.

2434. Patientia animi occultas divitias habet.

This is another one of the sayings collected by Publilius Syrus.

2435. Inimici occulti sunt pessimi.

Compare the saying you saw earlier: Ira, quae tegitur, nocet.

2436. Nihil ita occultum est quod non reveletur.

[revelo: unveil, disclose, reveal] Note the subjunctive reveletur, which gives the statement a general hypothetical quality; there is nothing so hidden which couldn't be known (sooner or later).

2437. Nil est occultum, quod non revelabitur.

Here the same idea is expressed with a future tense, instead of the subjunctive (both the future tense and the subjunctive mood have a hypothetical quality to them since they are not reality, in the way that the present and the past are real).

2438. Stultus nil celat; quae sunt in corde revelat.

The rhyme, celat-revelat, reveals the medieval provenance of this saying. You can also find the saying in this form, with quod instead of quae: Stultus nil celat; quod habet sub corde, revelat.

2439. Sol omnia videt et revelat.

Compare the saying you saw earlier: Sol omnia aperit.

2440. Tempus omnia revelat.

Compare the saying you saw earlier about the passage of time: Occulta veritas tempore patet.

2441. Tempus rerum imperator.

[imperator: commander, general, ruler] This is a motto of the Clockmakers' Company.

2442. Decet imperatorem stantem mori.

Note that decet takes an accusative complement: it befits a general (decet imperatorem) to die standing up (stantem mori).

2443. Dux atque imperator vitae mortalium animus est.

The words are from Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum.

2444. Tanti est exercitus, quanti imperator.

[exercitus: army, infantry] Here you see the genitive that expresses a value or worth: An army is worth as much (tanti), as its commander is worth (quanti).

2445. Egomet sum mihi imperator.

The words are from Plautus's Mercator. The form egomet is an emphatic form of the pronoun ego.

2446. Cras mihi.

[cras: tomorrow] The subject is unspecified - tomorrow something (depending on context) will be mine!

2447. Quid sit futurum cras, fuge quaerere.

The subjunctive sit futurum is because of the indirect question introduced by quid. The words are from an ode by Horace, 1.9.

2448. Is ridet, qui cras flebit.

Note the contrast between present tense (ridet) and future (flebit).

2449. Disce ut semper victurus, vive ut cras moriturus.

Notice that the ut here does not introduce a result or purpose clause; instead, it simply means "like" or "as if" - disce ut semper victurus, "study as if you were going to live forever."

2450. Discite victuri, sed vivite cras morituri.

This expresses the same idea as the previous saying, but this time the future active participles (victuri, morituri) simply agree with the subjects of the imperatives: vos.

Scala 50 (2451-2500)

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